# Contents

Foreword

My former company (CD Baby) was one of the first to loudly switch to Ruby on Rails, and then even more loudly switch back to PHP (Google me to read about the drama). This book by Michael Hartl came so highly recommended that I had to try it, and Ruby on Rails Tutorial is what I used to switch back to Rails again.

Though I’ve worked my way through many Rails books, this is the one that finally made me “get” it. Everything is done very much “the Rails way”—a way that felt very unnatural to me before, but now after doing this book finally feels natural. This is also the only Rails book that does test-driven development the entire time, an approach highly recommended by the experts but which has never been so clearly demonstrated before. Finally, by including Git, GitHub, and Heroku in the demo examples, the author really gives you a feel for what it’s like to do a real-world project. The tutorial’s code examples are not in isolation.

The linear narrative is such a great format. Personally, I powered through Rails Tutorial in three long days, doing all the examples and challenges at the end of each chapter. Do it from start to finish, without jumping around, and you’ll get the ultimate benefit.

Enjoy!

Derek Sivers (sivers.org)
Formerly: Founder, CD Baby
Currently: Founder, Thoughts Ltd.

Acknowledgments

Ruby on Rails Tutorial owes a lot to my previous Rails book, RailsSpace, and hence to my coauthor Aurelius Prochazka. I’d like to thank Aure both for the work he did on that book and for his support of this one. I’d also like to thank Debra Williams Cauley, my editor on both RailsSpace and Rails Tutorial; as long as she keeps taking me to baseball games, I’ll keep writing books for her.

I’d like to acknowledge a long list of Rubyists who have taught and inspired me over the years: David Heinemeier Hansson, Yehuda Katz, Carl Lerche, Jeremy Kemper, Xavier Noria, Ryan Bates, Geoffrey Grosenbach, Peter Cooper, Matt Aimonetti, Gregg Pollack, Wayne E. Seguin, Amy Hoy, Dave Chelimsky, Pat Maddox, Tom Preston-Werner, Chris Wanstrath, Chad Fowler, Josh Susser, Obie Fernandez, Ian McFarland, Steven Bristol, Giles Bowkett, Evan Dorn, Long Nguyen, James Lindenbaum, Adam Wiggins, Tikhon Bernstam, Ron Evans, Wyatt Greene, Miles Forrest, the good people at Pivotal Labs, the Heroku gang, the thoughtbot guys, and the GitHub crew. Finally, many, many readers—far too many to list—have contributed a huge number of bug reports and suggestions during the writing of this book, and I gratefully acknowledge their help in making it as good as it can be.

Michael Hartl is a programmer, educator, and entrepreneur. Michael was coauthor of RailsSpace, a best-selling Rails tutorial book published in 2007, and was cofounder and lead developer of Insoshi, a popular social networking platform in Ruby on Rails. Previously, he taught theoretical and computational physics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), where he received the Lifetime Achievement Award for Excellence in Teaching. Michael is a graduate of Harvard College, has a Ph.D. in Physics from Caltech, and is an alumnus of the Y Combinator program.

Ruby on Rails Tutorial: Learn Rails by Example. Copyright © 2010 by Michael Hartl. All source code in Ruby on Rails Tutorial is available under the MIT License and the Beerware License.

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# Chapter 11 User microposts

Chapter 10 saw the completion of the REST actions for the Users resource, so the time has finally come to add a second resource: user microposts.1 These are short messages associated with a particular user, first seen in larval form in Chapter 2. In this chapter, we will make a full-strength version of the sketch from Section 2.3 by constructing the Micropost data model, associating it with the User model using the has_many and belongs_to methods, and then making the forms and partials needed to manipulate and display the results. In Chapter 12, we will complete our tiny Twitter clone by adding the notion of following users in order to receive a feed of their microposts.

If you’re using Git for version control, I suggest making a topic branch as usual:

$git checkout -b user-microposts  ## 11.1 A Micropost model We begin the Microposts resource by creating a Micropost model, which captures the essential characteristics of microposts. What follows builds on the work from Section 2.3; as with the model in that section, our new Micropost model will include data validations and an association with the User model. Unlike that model, the present Micropost model will be fully tested, and will also have a default ordering and automatic destruction if its parent user is destroyed. ### 11.1.1 The basic model The Micropost model needs only two attributes: a content attribute to hold the micropost’s content,2 and a user_id to associate a micropost with a particular user. As with the case of the User model (Listing 6.1), we generate it using generate rspec_model: $ script/generate rspec_model Micropost content:string user_id:integer


This produces a migration to create a microposts table in the database (Listing 11.1); compare it to the analogous migration for the users table from Listing 6.2.

Listing 11.1. The Micropost migration. (Note the index on user_id.)
db/migrate/<timestamp>_create_microposts.rb
class CreateMicroposts < ActiveRecord::Migration
def self.up
create_table :microposts do |t|
t.string :content
t.integer :user_id

t.timestamps
end
end

def self.down
drop_table :microposts
end
end


Note that, since we expect to retrieve all the microposts associated with a given user id, Listing 11.1 adds an index (Box 6.2) on the user_id column:

add_index :microposts, :user_id


Note also the t.timestamps line, which (as mentioned in Section 6.1.1) adds the magic created_at and updated_at columns. We’ll put the created_at column to work in Section 11.1.3 and Section 11.2.1.

We can run the microposts migration as usual (taking care to prepare the test database since the data model has changed):

$rake db:migrate$ rake db:test:prepare


The result is a Micropost model with the structure shown in Figure 11.1.

#### Accessible attribute

Before fleshing out the Micropost model, it’s important first to use attr_accessible to indicate the attributes editable through the web. As discussed in Section 6.1.2.2 and Section 10.4.1.1, failing to define accessible attributes means that anyone could change any aspect of a micropost object simply by using a command-line client to issue malicious requests. For example, a malicious user could change the user_id attributes on microposts, thereby associating microposts with the wrong users.

In the case of the Micropost model, there is only one attribute that needs to be editable through the web, namely, the content attribute (Listing 11.2).

Listing 11.2. Making the content attribute (and only the content attribute) accessible.
app/models/micropost.rb
class Micropost < ActiveRecord::Base
attr_accessible :content
end


Since user_id isn’t listed as an attr_accessible parameter, it can’t be edited through the web, because a user_id parameter in a mass assignment such as

Micropost.new(:content => "foo bar", :user_id => 17)


will simply be ignored.

The attr_accessible declaration in Listing 11.2 is necessary for site security, but it introduces a problem in the default Micropost model spec (Listing 11.3).

Listing 11.3. The initial (lightly edited) Micropost spec.
spec/models/micropost_spec.rb
require 'spec_helper'

describe Micropost do
before(:each) do
@attr = {
:content => "value for content",
:user_id => 1
}
end

it "should create a new instance given valid attributes" do
Micropost.create!(@attr)
end
end


(As in Listing 6.8, I’ve replaced @valid_attributes with the more succinct @attr.) This test currently passes, but there’s something fishy about it. (See if you can figure out what before proceeding.)

The problem is that the before(:each) block in Listing 11.3 assigns the user id through mass assignment, which is exactly what attr_accessible is designed to prevent; in particular, as noted above, the :user_id => 1 part of the initialization hash is simply ignored. The solution is to avoid using Micropost.new directly; instead, we will create the new micropost through its association with the User model, which sets the user id automatically. Accomplishing this is the task of the next section.

### 11.1.2 User/Micropost associations

The goal of this section is to establish an association between the Micropost model and the User model—a relationship seen briefly in Section 2.3.3 and shown schematically in Figure 11.2 and Figure 11.3. Along the way, we’ll write tests for the Micropost model that, unlike Listing 11.3, are compatible with the use of attr_accessible in Listing 11.2.

We start with tests for the Micropost model association. First, we want to replicate the Micropost.create! test shown in Listing 11.3 without the invalid mass assignment. Second, we see from Figure 11.2 that a micropost object should have a user method. Finally, micropost.user should be the user corresponding to the micropost’s user_id. We can express these requirements in RSpec with the code in Listing 11.4.

Listing 11.4. Tests for the micropost’s user association.
spec/models/micropost_spec.rb
require 'spec_helper'

describe Micropost do

before(:each) do
@user = Factory(:user)
@attr = { :content => "value for content" }
end

it "should create a new instance given valid attributes" do
@user.microposts.create!(@attr)
end

describe "user associations" do

before(:each) do
@micropost = @user.microposts.create(@attr)
end

it "should have a user attribute" do
@micropost.should respond_to(:user)
end

it "should have the right associated user" do
@micropost.user_id.should == @user.id
@micropost.user.should == @user
end
end
end


Note that, rather than using Micropost.create or Micropost.create! to create a micropost, Listing 11.4 uses

@user.microposts.create(@attr)


and

@user.microposts.create!(@attr)


This pattern is the canonical way to create a micropost through its association with users. (We use a factory user because these tests are for the Micropost model, not the User model.) When created in this way, the micropost object automatically has its user_id set to the right value, which fixes the issue noted in Section 11.1.1.1. In particular, the code

  before(:each) do
@attr = {
:content => "value for content",
:user_id => 1
}
end

it "should create a new instance given valid attributes" do
Micropost.create!(@attr)
end


from Listing 11.3 is defective because :user_id => 1 does nothing when user_id is not one of the Micropost model’s accessible attributes. By going through the user association, on the other hand, the code

it "should create a new instance given valid attributes" do
@user.microposts.create!(@attr)
end


from Listing 11.4 has the right user_id by construction.

These special create methods won’t work yet; they require the proper has_many association in the User model. We’ll defer the more detailed tests for this association to Section 11.1.3; for now, we’ll simply test for the presence of a microposts attribute (Listing 11.5).

Listing 11.5. A test for the user’s microposts attribute.
spec/models/user_spec.rb
require 'spec_helper'

describe User do
.
.
.
describe "micropost associations" do

before(:each) do
@user = User.create(@attr)
end

it "should have a microposts attribute" do
@user.should respond_to(:microposts)
end
end
end


We can get the tests in both Listing 11.4 and Listing 11.5 to pass using the belongs_to/has_many association illustrated in Figure 11.2 and Figure 11.3, as shown in Listing 11.6 and Listing 11.7.

Listing 11.6. A micropost belongs_to a user.
app/models/micropost.rb
class Micropost < ActiveRecord::Base
attr_accessible :content

belongs_to :user
end

Listing 11.7. A user has_many microposts.
app/models/user.rb
class User < ActiveRecord::Base

has_many :microposts
.
.
.
end


Using this belongs_to/has_many association, Rails constructs the methods shown in Table 11.1. You should compare the entries in Table 11.1 with the code in Listing 11.4 and Listing 11.5 to satisfy yourself that you understand the basic nature of the associations. (There is one method in Table 11.1 we haven’t used so far, the build method; it will be put to good use in Section 11.1.4 and especially in Section 11.3.2.)

MethodPurpose
micropost.userReturn the User object associated with the micropost.
user.micropostsReturn an array of the user’s microposts.
user.microposts.create(arg)Create a micropost (user_id = user.id).
user.microposts.create!(arg)Create a micropost (exception on failure).
user.microposts.build(arg)Return a new Micropost object (user_id = user.id).
Table 11.1: A summary of user/micropost association methods.

### 11.1.3 Micropost refinements

The test in Listing 11.5 of the has_many association doesn’t test for much—it merely verifies the existence of a microposts attribute. In this section, we’ll add ordering and dependency to microposts, while also testing that the user.microposts method actually returns an array of microposts

We will need to construct some microposts in the User model spec, which means that we should make a micropost factory at this point. To do this, we need a way to make an association in Factory Girl. Happily, this is easy—we just use the Factory Girl method micropost.association, as seen in Listing 11.8.3

Listing 11.8. The complete factory file, including a new factory for microposts.
spec/factories.rb
# By using the symbol ':user', we get Factory Girl to simulate the User model.
Factory.define :user do |user|
user.name                  "Michael Hartl"
user.email                 "mhartl@example.com"
end

Factory.sequence :email do |n|
"person-#{n}@example.com"
end

Factory.define :micropost do |micropost|
micropost.content "Foo bar"
micropost.association :user
end


#### Default scope

We can put the micropost factory to work in a test for the ordering of microposts. By default, using user.microposts to pull a user’s microposts from the database makes no guarantees about the order of the posts, but (following the convention of blogs and Twitter) we want the microposts to come out in reverse order of when they were created, i.e., most recent first. To test this ordering, we first create a couple of microposts as follows:

  @mp1 = Factory(:micropost, :user => @user, :created_at => 1.day.ago)
@mp2 = Factory(:micropost, :user => @user, :created_at => 1.hour.ago)


Here we indicate that the second post was created more recently, 1.hour.ago, with the first post created 1.day.ago. Note how convenient the use of Factory Girl is: not only can we assign the user using mass assignment (since factories bypass attr_accessible), we can also set created_at manually, which Active Record won’t allow us to do.4

Most database adapters (including the one for SQLite) return the microposts in order of their ids, so we can arrange for an initial test that almost certainly fails using the code in Listing 11.9.

Listing 11.9. Testing the order of a user’s microposts.
spec/models/user_spec.rb
require 'spec_helper'

describe User do
.
.
.
describe "micropost associations" do

before(:each) do
@user = User.create(@attr)
@mp1 = Factory(:micropost, :user => @user, :created_at => 1.day.ago)
@mp2 = Factory(:micropost, :user => @user, :created_at => 1.hour.ago)
end

it "should have a microposts attribute" do
@user.should respond_to(:microposts)
end

it "should have the right microposts in the right order" do
@user.microposts.should == [@mp2, @mp1]
end
end
end


The key line here is

@user.microposts.should == [@mp2, @mp1]


indicating that the posts should be ordered newest first. This should fail because by default the posts will be ordered by id, i.e., [@mp1, @mp2]. This test also verifies the basic correctness of the has_many association itself, by checking (as indicated in Table 11.1) that user.microposts is an array of microposts.

To get the ordering test to pass, we use a Rails facility called default_scope with an :order parameter, as shown in Listing 11.10. (This is our first example of the notion of scope. We will learn about scope in a more general context in Chapter 12.)

Listing 11.10. Ordering the microposts with default_scope.
app/models/micropost.rb
class Micropost < ActiveRecord::Base
.
.
.
default_scope :order => 'created_at DESC'
end


The order here is ’created_at DESC’, where DESC is SQL for “descending”, i.e., in descending order from newest to oldest.

#### Dependent: destroy

Apart from proper ordering, there is a second refinement we’d like to add to microposts. Recall from Section 10.4 that site administrators have the power to destroy users. It stands to reason that if a user is destroyed, the user’s microposts should be destroyed as well. We can test for this by first destroying a micropost’s user and then verifying that the associated microposts are no longer in the database (Listing 11.11).

Listing 11.11. Testing that microposts are destroyed when users are.
spec/models/user_spec.rb
describe User do
.
.
.
describe "micropost associations" do

before(:each) do
@user = User.create(@attr)
@mp1 = Factory(:micropost, :user => @user, :created_at => 1.day.ago)
@mp2 = Factory(:micropost, :user => @user, :created_at => 1.hour.ago)
end
.
.
.
it "should destroy associated microposts" do
@user.destroy
[@mp1, @mp2].each do |micropost|
Micropost.find_by_id(micropost.id).should be_nil
end
end
end
.
.
.
end


Here we have used Micropost.find_by_id, which returns nil if the record is not found, whereas Micropost.find raises an exception on failure, which is a bit harder to test for. (In case you’re curious,

lambda do
Micropost.find(micropost.id)
end.should raise_error(ActiveRecord::RecordNotFound)


does the trick in this case.)

The application code to get Listing 11.11 to pass is less than one line; in fact, it’s just an option to the has_many association method, as shown in Listing 11.12.

Listing 11.12. Ensuring that a user’s microposts are destroyed along with the user.
app/models/user.rb
class User < ActiveRecord::Base
.
.
.
has_many :microposts, :dependent => :destroy
.
.
.
end


With that, the final form of the user/micropost association is in place.

### 11.1.4 Micropost validations

Before leaving the Micropost model, we’ll tie off a couple loose ends by adding validations (following the example from Section 2.3.2). Both the user_id and content attributes are required, and content is further constrained to be shorter than 140 characters, which we test for using the code in Listing 11.13.

Listing 11.13. Tests for the Micropost model validations.
spec/models/micropost_spec.rb
require 'spec_helper'

describe Micropost do

before(:each) do
@user = Factory(:user)
@attr = { :content => "value for content" }
end
.
.
.
describe "validations" do

it "should require a user id" do
Micropost.new(@attr).should_not be_valid
end

it "should require nonblank content" do
@user.microposts.build(:content => "  ").should_not be_valid
end

it "should reject long content" do
@user.microposts.build(:content => "a" * 141).should_not be_valid
end
end
end


These generally follow the examples from the User model validation tests from Section 6.2. (The analogous tests were broken into multiple lines in that section, but you should be comfortable enough reading RSpec code by now to digest the more compact formulation above.)

As in Section 6.2, the code in Listing 11.13 uses string multiplication to test the micropost length validation:

$script/console >> "a" * 10 => "aaaaaaaaaa" >> "a" * 141 => "aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa"  In contrast, instead of using the default new constructor as in User.new(...)  the code in Listing 11.13 uses the build method: @user.microposts.build  Recall from Table 11.1 that this is essentially equivalent to Micropost.new, except that it automatically sets the micropost’s user_id to @user.id. The validations themselves are straightforward analogues of the User model validations, as seen in Listing 11.14. Listing 11.14. The Micropost model validations. app/models/micropost.rb class Micropost < ActiveRecord::Base attr_accessible :content belongs_to :user validates_presence_of :content, :user_id validates_length_of :content, :maximum => 140 default_scope :order => 'created_at DESC' end  This completes the data modeling for users and microposts. It’s time now to build the web interface. ## 11.2 Showing microposts Although we don’t yet have a way to create microposts through the web—that comes in Section 11.3.2—that won’t stop us from displaying them (and testing that display). Following Twitter’s lead, we’ll plan to display a user’s microposts not on a separate microposts index page, but rather directly on the user show page itself, as mocked up in Figure 11.4. We’ll start with fairly simple ERb templates for adding a micropost display to the user profile, and then we’ll add microposts to the sample data populator from Section 10.3.2 so that we have something to display. As with the discussion of the signin machinery in Section 9.3.2, Section 11.2.1 will often push several elements onto the stack at a time, and then pop them off one by one. If you start getting bogged down, be patient; there’s some nice payoff in Section 11.2.2. ### 11.2.1 Augmenting the user show page We begin with a test for displaying the user’s microposts. We work in the Users controller spec, since it is the Users controller that contains the user show action. Our strategy is to create a couple of factory microposts associated with the user, and then verify that the show page has a span tag with CSS class "content" containing each post’s content. The resulting RSpec example appears in Listing 11.15. Listing 11.15. A test for showing microposts on the user show page. spec/controllers/users_controller_spec.rb require 'spec_helper' describe UsersController do integrate_views . . . describe "GET 'show'" do before(:each) do @user = Factory(:user) # Arrange for User.find(params[:id]) to find the right user. User.stub!(:find, @user.id).and_return(@user) end . . . it "should show the user's microposts" do mp1 = Factory(:micropost, :user => @user, :content => "Foo bar") mp2 = Factory(:micropost, :user => @user, :content => "Baz quux") get :show, :id => @user response.should have_tag("span.content", mp1.content) response.should have_tag("span.content", mp2.content) end end . . . end  Although these tests won’t pass until Listing 11.17, we’ll get started on the application code by inserting a table of microposts into the user profile page, as shown in Listing 11.16.5 Listing 11.16. Adding microposts to the user show page. app/views/users/show.html.erb <table class="profile"> <tr> <td class="main"> . . . <% unless @user.microposts.empty? %> <table class="microposts"> <%= render @microposts %> </table> <%= will_paginate @microposts %> <% end %> </td> <td class="sidebar round"> <strong>Name</strong> <%= h @user.name %><br /> <strong>URL</strong> <%= link_to user_path(@user), @user %><br /> <strong>Microposts</strong> <%= @user.microposts.count %> </td> </tr> </table>  We’ll deal with the microposts table momentarily, but there are several other things to note first. One new idea is the use of empty? in the line @user.microposts.empty?  This applies the empty? method, seen before in the context of strings (e.g., Section 4.2.3), to an array: $ script/console
>> [1, 2].empty?
=> false
>> [].empty?
=> true


By using the conditional unless clause,

<% unless @user.microposts.empty? %>


we make sure that an empty table won’t be displayed when the user has no microposts.

You’ll also note from Listing 11.16 that we’ve preemptively added pagination for microposts through

<%= will_paginate @microposts %>


If you compare this with the analogous line on the user index page, Listing 10.26, you’ll see that before we had just

<%= will_paginate %>


This worked because, in the context of the Users controller, will_paginate assumes the existence of an instance variable called @users (which, as we saw in Section 10.3.3, should be of class WillPaginate::Collection). In the present case, since we are still in the Users controller but want to paginate microposts instead, we pass an explicit @microposts variable to will_paginate. Of course, this means that we will have to define such a variable in the user show action (Listing 11.18 below).

Finally, note that we have taken this opportunity to add a count of the current number of microposts to the profile sidebar:

<td class="sidebar round">
<strong>Name</strong> <%= h @user.name %><br />
<strong>URL</strong> <%= link_to user_path(@user), @user %><br />
<strong>Microposts</strong> <%= @user.microposts.count %>
</td>


Here @user.microposts.count is the analogue of the User.count method, except that it counts the microposts belonging to a given user through the user/micropost association.6

Now for the microposts table itself:

<table class="microposts">
<%= render @microposts %>
</table>


This code is responsible for generating the table of microposts, but you can see that it just defers the heavy lifting to a micropost partial. We saw in Section 10.3.4 that the code

<%= render @users %>


automatically renders each of the users in the @users variable using the _user.html.erb partial. Similarly, the code

<%= render @microposts %>


does exactly the same thing for microposts. This means that we must define a _micropost.html.erb partial, as shown in Listing 11.17.

Listing 11.17. A partial for showing a single micropost.
app/views/microposts/_micropost.html.erb
<tr>
<td class="micropost">
<span class="content"><%= h micropost.content %></span>
<span class="timestamp">
Posted <%= time_ago_in_words(micropost.created_at) %> ago.
</span>
</td>
</tr>


This uses the awesome time_ago_in_words helper method, whose effect we will see in Section 11.2.2.

Thus far, despite defining all the relevant ERb templates, the test in Listing 11.15 should have been failing for want of an @microposts variable. We can get it to pass with Listing 11.18.

Listing 11.18. Adding an @microposts instance variable to the user show action.
app/controllers/users_controller.rb
class UsersController < ApplicationController
.
.
.
def show
@user = User.find(params[:id])
@microposts = @user.microposts.paginate(:page => params[:page])
@title = CGI.escapeHTML(@user.name)
end
end


Notice here how clever paginate is—it even works with the microposts association, converting the array into a WillPaginate::Collection object on the fly.

Upon adding the CSS from Listing 11.19 to our custom.css stylesheet,7 we can get a look at our new user profile page in Figure 11.5. It’s rather… disappointing. Of course, this is because there are not currently any microposts. It’s time to change that.

Listing 11.19. The CSS for microposts (includes all the CSS for this chapter).
public/stylesheets/custom.css
.
.
.
h2.micropost {
margin-bottom: 0;
}

table.microposts tr {
height: 70px;
}

table.microposts tr td.gravatar {
border-top: 1px solid #ccc;
vertical-align: top;
width: 50px;
}

table.microposts tr td.micropost {
border-top: 1px solid #ccc;
vertical-align: top;
}

table.microposts tr td.micropost span.timestamp {
display: block;
font-size: 85%;
color: #666;
}

div.user_info img {
}

div.user_info a {
text-decoration: none;
}

div.user_info span.user_name {
position: absolute;
}

div.user_info span.microposts {
font-size: 80%;
}

form.new_micropost {
margin-bottom: 2em;
}

form.new_micropost textarea {
height: 4em;
margin-bottom: 0;
}


### 11.2.2 Sample microposts

With all the work making templates for user microposts in Section 11.2.1, the ending was rather anticlimactic. We can rectify this sad situation by adding microposts to the sample populator from Section 10.3.2. Adding sample microposts for all the users actually takes a rather long time, so first we’ll select just the first six users8 using the :limit option to the User.all method:9

User.all(:limit => 6)


We then make 50 microposts for each user (plenty to overflow the pagination limit of 30), generating sample content for each micropost using the Faker gem’s handy Lorem.sentence method. (Faker::Lorem.sentence returns lorem ipsum text; as noted in Chapter 6, lorem ipsum has a fascinating back story.) The result is the new sample data populator shown in Listing 11.20.

Listing 11.20. Adding microposts to the sample data.
lib/tasks/sample_data.rake
require 'faker'

namespace :db do
desc "Fill database with sample data"
.
.
.
User.all(:limit => 6).each do |user|
50.times do
user.microposts.create!(:content => Faker::Lorem.sentence(5))
end
end
end
end


Of course, to generate the new sample data we have to run the db:populate Rake task:

$rake db:populate  With that, we are in a position to enjoy the fruits of our Section 11.2.1 labors by displaying information for each micropost.10 Figure 11.6 shows the user profile page for the first (signed-in) user, while Figure 11.7 shows the profile for a second user. Finally, Figure 11.8 shows the second page of microposts for the first user, along with the pagination links at the bottom of the display. In all three cases, observe that each micropost display indicates the time since it was created (e.g., “Posted 1 minute ago.”); this is the work of the time_ago_in_words method from Listing 11.17. If you wait a couple minutes and reload the pages, you’ll see how the text gets automatically updated based on the new time. ## 11.3 Manipulating microposts Having finished both the data modeling and display templates for microposts, we now turn our attention to the interface for creating them through the web. The result will be our third example of using an HTML form to create a resource—in this case, a Microposts resource.11 In this section we’ll also see the first hint of a status feed—a notion brought to full fruition in Chapter 12. Finally, as with users, we’ll make it possible to destroy microposts through the web. There is one break with past convention worth noting: the interface to the Microposts resource will run principally through the Users and Pages controllers, rather than relying a controller of its own. This means that the routes for the Microposts resource are unusually simple, as seen in Listing 11.21. The code in Listing 11.21 leads in turn to the RESTful routes show in Table 11.2, which is a small subset of the full set of routes seen in Table 2.3. Of course, this simplicity is a sign of being more advanced, not less—we’ve come a long way since our reliance on scaffolding in Chapter 2, and we no longer need most of its complexity. Listing 11.21. Routes for the Microposts resource. config/routes.rb ActionController::Routing::Routes.draw do |map| map.resources :users map.resources :sessions, :only => [:new, :create, :destroy] map.resources :microposts, :only => [:create, :destroy] . . . end  HTTP requestURLActionPurpose POST/micropostscreatecreate a new micropost DELETE/microposts/1destroydelete micropost with id 1 Table 11.2: RESTful routes provided by the Microposts resource in Listing 11.21. ### 11.3.1 Access control We begin our development of the Microposts resource with some access control in the Microposts controller. The idea is simple: both the create and destroy actions should require users to be signed in. The RSpec code to test for this appears in Listing 11.22. (We’ll test for and add a third protection—ensuring that only a micropost’s user can destroy it—in Section 11.3.4.) Listing 11.22. Access control tests for the Microposts controller. spec/controllers/microposts_controller_spec.rb require 'spec_helper' describe MicropostsController do integrate_views describe "access control" do it "should deny access to 'create'" do post :create response.should redirect_to(signin_path) end it "should deny access to 'destroy'" do delete :destroy response.should redirect_to(signin_path) end end end  Writing the application code needed to get the tests in Listing 11.22 to pass requires a little refactoring first. Recall from Section 10.2.1 that we enforced the signin requirement using a before filter that called the authenticate method (Listing 10.9). At the time, we only needed authenticate in the Users controller, but now we find that we need it in the Microposts controller as well, so we’ll move authenticate into the Sessions helper, as shown in Listing 11.23.12 Listing 11.23. Moving the authenticate method into the Sessions helper. app/helpers/sessions_helper.rb module SessionsHelper . . . def authenticate deny_access unless signed_in? end def deny_access store_location flash[:notice] = "Please sign in to access this page." redirect_to(signin_path) end . . . end  (To avoid code repetition, you should also remove authenticate from the Users controller at this time.) With the code in Listing 11.23, the authenticate method is now available in the Microposts controller, which means that we can restrict access to the create and destroy actions with the before filter shown in Listing 11.24. (Since we didn’t generate it at the command line, you will have to create the Microposts controller file by hand.) Listing 11.24. Adding authentication to the Microposts controller actions. app/controllers/microposts_controller.rb class MicropostsController < ApplicationController before_filter :authenticate def create end def destroy end end  Note that we haven’t restricted the actions the before filter applies to, since presently it applies to them both. If we were to add, say, an index action accessible even to non-signed-in users, we would need to specify the protected actions explicitly: class MicropostsController < ApplicationController before_filter :authenticate, :only => [:create, :destroy] def create end def destroy end end  ### 11.3.2 Creating microposts In Chapter 8, we implemented user signup by making an HTML form that issued an HTTP POST request to the create action in the Users controller. The implementation of micropost creation is similar; the main difference is that, rather than using a separate page at /microposts/new, we will (following Twitter’s convention) put the form on the Home page itself (i.e., the root path /), as mocked up in Figure 11.9. When we last left the Home page, it appeared as in Figure 5.7—that is, it had a big, fat “Sign up now!” button in the middle. Since a micropost creation form only makes sense in the context of a particular signed-in user, one goal of this section will be to serve different versions of the Home page depending on a visitor’s signin status. We’ll implement this in Listing 11.27 below, but for now the only implication is that the tests for the Microposts controller create action should sign a (factory) user in before attempting to make a post. With that caveat in mind, the micropost creation tests parallel those for user creation from Listing 8.6 and Listing 8.13; the result appears in Listing 11.25. Listing 11.25. Tests for the Microposts controller create action. spec/controllers/microposts_controller_spec.rb require 'spec_helper' describe MicropostsController do . . . describe "POST 'create'" do before(:each) do @user = test_sign_in(Factory(:user)) @attr = { :content => "Lorem ipsum" } @micropost = Factory(:micropost, @attr.merge(:user => @user)) @user.microposts.stub!(:build).and_return(@micropost) end describe "failure" do before(:each) do @micropost.should_receive(:save).and_return(false) end it "should render the home page" do post :create, :micropost => @attr response.should render_template('pages/home') end end describe "success" do before(:each) do @micropost.should_receive(:save).and_return(true) end it "should redirect to the home page" do post :create, :micropost => @attr response.should redirect_to(root_path) end it "should have a flash message" do post :create, :micropost => @attr flash[:success].should =~ /micropost created/i end end end end  Here we’ve stubbed out @user.microposts.build instead of User.new as in, e.g., Listing 8.6, but the basic idea is the same: the test intercepts calls to build and returns instead the factory micropost created by @micropost = Factory(:micropost, @attr.merge(:user => @user))  The micropost creation failure and success tests then use the message expectations @micropost.should_receive(:save)  to ensure that the code attempts to save the micropost, in each case either rendering the Home page (on failure) or redirecting (on success).13 The create action for microposts is similar to its user analogue (Listing 8.14); the principal difference lies in using the user/micropost association to build the new micropost, as seen in Listing 11.26. Listing 11.26. The Microposts controller create action. app/controllers/microposts_controller.rb class MicropostsController < ApplicationController . . . def create @micropost = current_user.microposts.build(params[:micropost]) if @micropost.save flash[:success] = "Micropost created!" redirect_to root_path else render 'pages/home' end end . . . end  At this point, the tests in Listing 11.25 should all be passing, but of course we still don’t have a form to create microposts. We can rectify this with Listing 11.27, which serves up different HTML based on whether the site visitor is signed in or not. Listing 11.27. Adding microposts creation to the Home page (/). app/views/pages/home.html.erb <% if signed_in? %> <table class="front"> <tr> <td class="main"> <h2 class="micropost">What's up?</h2> <%= render 'pages/micropost_form' %> </td> <td class="sidebar round"> <%= render 'pages/user_info' %> </td> </tr> </table> <% else %> <h1>Sample App</h1> <p> This is the home page for the <a href="http://www.railstutorial.org/">Ruby on Rails Tutorial</a> sample application. </p> <%= link_to "Sign up now!", signup_path, :class => "signup_button round" %> <% end %>  Having so much code in each branch of the if-else conditional is a bit messy, and cleaning it up using partials is left as an exercise (Section 11.5). Filling in the necessary partials from Listing 11.27 isn’t an exercise, though; we fill in the micropost form partial in Listing 11.28 and the new Home page sidebar in Listing 11.29. Listing 11.28. The form partial for creating microposts. app/views/pages/_micropost_form.html.erb <% form_for @micropost do |f| %> <%= f.error_messages %> <div class="field"> <%= f.text_area :content %> </div> <div class="actions"> <%= f.submit "Submit" %> </div> <% end %>  Listing 11.29. The partial for the user info sidebar. app/views/pages/_user_info.html.erb <div class="user_info"> <a href="<%= user_path(current_user) %>"> <%= gravatar_for current_user, :size => 30 %> <span class="user_name"> <%= h current_user.name %> </span> <span class="microposts"> <%= pluralize(current_user.microposts.count, "micropost") %> </span> </a> </div>  Note that, as in the profile sidebar (Listing 11.16), the user info in Listing 11.29 displays the total number of microposts for the user. There’s a slight difference in the display, though; in the profile sidebar, Microposts is a label, and showing Microposts 1 makes perfect sense. In the present case, though, saying “1 microposts” is ungrammatical, so we arrange to display “1 micropost” (but “2 microposts”) using the convenient pluralize helper method. The form defined in Listing 11.28 is an exact analogue of the signup form in Listing 8.2, which means that it needs an @micropost instance variable. This is supplied in Listing 11.30—but only when the user is signed in. Listing 11.30. Adding a micropost instance variable to the home action. app/controllers/pages_controller.rb class PagesController < ApplicationController def home @title = "Home" @micropost = Micropost.new if signed_in? end . . . end  Now the HTML should render properly, showing the form as in Figure 11.10, and a form with a submission error as in Figure 11.11. You are invited at this point to create a new post for yourself and verify that everything is working—but you should probably wait until after Section 11.3.3. ### 11.3.3 A proto-feed The comment at the end of Section 11.3.2 alluded to a problem: the current Home page doesn’t display any microposts. If you like, you can verify that the form shown in Figure 11.10 is working by submitting a valid entry and then navigating to the profile page to see the post, but that’s rather cumbersome. It would be far better to have a feed of microposts that includes the user’s own posts, as mocked up in Figure 11.12. (In Chapter 12, we’ll generalize this feed to include the microposts of users being followed by the current user.) Since each user should have a feed, we are led naturally to a feed method in the User model. Eventually, we will test that the feed returns the microposts of the users being followed, but for now we’ll just test that the feed method includes the current user’s microposts but excludes the posts of a different user. We can express these requirements in code with Listing 11.31. Listing 11.31. Tests for the (proto-)status feed. spec/models/user_spec.rb require 'spec_helper' describe User do . . . describe "micropost associations" do before(:each) do @user = User.create(@attr) @mp1 = Factory(:micropost, :user => @user, :created_at => 1.day.ago) @mp2 = Factory(:micropost, :user => @user, :created_at => 1.hour.ago) end . . . describe "status feed" do it "should have a feed" do @user.should respond_to(:feed) end it "should include the user's microposts" do @user.feed.include?(@mp1).should be_true @user.feed.include?(@mp2).should be_true end it "should not include a different user's microposts" do mp3 = Factory(:micropost, :user => Factory(:user, :email => Factory.next(:email))) @user.feed.include?(mp3).should be_false end end end end  These tests introduce the array include? method, which simply checks if an array includes the given element:14 $ script/console
>> a = [1, "foo", :bar]
>> a.include?("foo")
=> true
>> a.include?(:bar)
=> true
>> a.include?("baz")
=> false


We can arrange for an appropriate micropost feed by selecting all the microposts with user_id equal to the current user’s id, which we accomplish using a :conditions option to Micropost.all, as shown in Listing 11.32.15

Listing 11.32. A preliminary implementation for the micropost status feed.
app/models/user.rb
class User < ActiveRecord::Base
.
.
.
def feed
# This is preliminary. See Chapter 12 for the full implementation.
Micropost.all(:conditions => ["user_id = ?", id])
end
.
.
.
end


The question mark in

:conditions => ["user_id = ?", id]


ensures that id is properly escaped before being included in the underlying SQL query, thereby avoiding a serious security breach called SQL injection. (The id attribute here is just an integer, so there is no danger in this case, but always escaping variables injected into SQL statements is a good habit to cultivate.)

Alert readers might note at this point that the code in Listing 11.32 is essentially equivalent to writing

def feed
microposts
end


We’ve used the code in Listing 11.32 instead because it generalizes much more naturally to the full status feed needed in Chapter 12.

To use the feed in the sample application, we add an @feed_items instance variable for the current user’s (paginated) feed, as in Listing 11.33, and then add a feed partial (Listing 11.34) to the Home page (Listing 11.36).

Listing 11.33. Adding a feed instance variable to the home action.
app/controllers/pages_controller.rb
class PagesController < ApplicationController

def home
@title = "Home"
if signed_in?
@micropost = Micropost.new
@feed_items = current_user.feed.paginate(:page => params[:page])
end
end
.
.
.
end

Listing 11.34. The status feed partial.
app/views/pages/_feed.html.erb
<% unless @feed_items.empty? %>
<table class="microposts">
<%= render :partial => 'feed_item', :collection => @feed_items %>
</table>
<%= will_paginate @feed_items %>
<% end %>


The status feed partial defers the feed item rendering to a feed item partial using the code

<%= render :partial => 'feed_item', :collection => @feed_items %>


Here we pass a :collection parameter with the feed items, which causes render to use the given partial (’feed_item’ in this case) to render each item in the collection. (We have omitted the :partial parameter in previous renderings, writing, e.g., render ’pages/micropost’, but with a :collection parameter that syntax doesn’t work.) The feed item partial itself appears in Listing 11.35; note the addition of a delete link to the feed item partial, following the example from Listing 10.37.

Listing 11.35. A partial for a single feed item.
app/views/pages/_feed_item.html.erb
<tr>
<td class="gravatar">
</td>
<td class="micropost">
<span class="user">
</span>
<span class="content"><%= h feed_item.content %></span>
<span class="timestamp">
Posted <%= time_ago_in_words(feed_item.created_at) %> ago.
</span>
</td>
<% if current_user?(feed_item.user) %>
<td>
<%= link_to "delete", feed_item, :method => :delete,
:confirm => "You sure?" %>
</td>
<% end %>
</tr>


We can then add the feed to the Home page by rendering the feed partial as usual (Listing 11.36). The result is a display of the feed on the Home page, as required (Figure 11.13).

app/views/pages/home.html.erb
<% if signed_in? %>
<table class="front">
<tr>
<td class="main">
<h2 class="micropost">What's up?</h2>
<%= render 'pages/micropost_form' %>
<%= render 'pages/feed' %>
</td>
.
.
.
</tr>
</table>

<% else %>
.
.
.
<% end %>


At this point, creating a new micropost works as expected, as seen in Figure 11.14. (We’ll write an integration test to this effect in Section 11.3.5.) There is one subtlety, though: on failed micropost submission, the Home page expects an @feed_items instance variable, so failed submissions currently break (as you should be able to verify by running your test suite). The easiest solution is to suppress the feed entirely by assigning it an empty array, as shown in Listing 11.37.16

Listing 11.37. Adding an (empty) @feed_items instance variable to the create action.
app/controllers/microposts_controller.rb
class MicropostsController < ApplicationController
.
.
.
def create
@micropost = current_user.microposts.build(params[:micropost])
if @micropost.save
flash[:success] = "Micropost created!"
redirect_to root_path
else
@feed_items = []
render 'pages/home'
end
end
.
.
.
end


### 11.3.4 Destroying microposts

The last piece of functionality to add to the Microposts resource is the ability to destroy posts. As with user deletion (Section 10.4.2), we accomplish this with “delete” links, as mocked up in Figure 11.15. Unlike that case, which restricted user destruction to admin users, the delete links will work only for microposts created by the current user.

Our first step is to add a delete link to the micropost partial as in Listing 11.35. The result appears in Listing 11.38.

Listing 11.38. A partial for showing a single micropost.
app/views/microposts/_micropost.html.erb
<tr>
<td class="micropost">
<span class="content"><%= h micropost.content %></span>
<span class="timestamp">
Posted <%= time_ago_in_words(micropost.created_at) %> ago.
</span>
</td>
<% if current_user?(micropost.user) %>
<td>
<%= link_to "delete", micropost, :method => :delete,
:confirm => "You sure?" %>
</td>
<% end %>
</tr>


The tests for the destroy action are straightforward generalizations of the similar tests for destroying users (Listing 10.38), as seen in Listing 11.39.

Listing 11.39. Tests for the Microposts controller destroy action.
spec/controllers/microposts_controller_spec.rb
describe MicropostsController do
.
.
.
describe "DELETE 'destroy'" do

describe "for an unauthorized user" do

before(:each) do
@user = Factory(:user)
wrong_user = Factory(:user, :email => Factory.next(:email))
test_sign_in(wrong_user)
@micropost = Factory(:micropost, :user => @user)
end

it "should deny access" do
delete :destroy, :id => @micropost
response.should redirect_to(root_path)
end
end

describe "for an authorized user" do

before(:each) do
@user = test_sign_in(Factory(:user))
@micropost = Factory(:micropost, :user => @user)
end

it "should destroy the micropost" do
delete :destroy, :id => @micropost
end
end
end
end


The application code is also analogous to the user case in Listing 10.39; the main difference is that, rather than using an admin_user before filter, in the case of microposts we have an authorized_user before filter to check that the current user is the micropost’s user. The code appears in Listing 11.40, and the result of destroying the second-most-recent post appears in Figure 11.16.

Listing 11.40. The Microposts controller destroy action.
app/controllers/microposts_controller.rb
class MicropostsController < ApplicationController
before_filter :authenticate, :only => [:create, :destroy]
before_filter :authorized_user, :only => :destroy
.
.
.
def destroy
@micropost.destroy
redirect_back_or root_path
end

private

def authorized_user
@micropost = Micropost.find(params[:id])
redirect_to root_path unless current_user?(@micropost.user)
end
end


Before leaving micropost creation and destruction, we’ll write some RSpec integration specs to test that our forms are working properly. As in the case of users (Section 8.4), we start by generating a microposts integration spec:

$script/generate integration_spec microposts  Tests for failed and successful micropost creation and for micropost destruction appear in Listing 11.41. Listing 11.41. An integration test for the microposts on the home page. spec/integration/microposts_spec.rb require 'spec_helper' describe "Microposts" do before(:each) do @user = Factory(:user) visit signin_path fill_in :email, :with => @user.email fill_in :password, :with => @user.password click_button end describe "creation" do describe "failure" do it "should not make a new micropost" do lambda do visit root_path fill_in :micropost_content, :with => "" click_button response.should render_template('pages/home') response.should have_tag("div#errorExplanation") end.should_not change(Micropost, :count) end end describe "success" do it "should make a new micropost" do content = "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet" lambda do visit root_path fill_in :micropost_content, :with => content click_button response.should have_tag("span.content", content) end.should change(Micropost, :count).by(1) end end end describe "destruction" do it "should destroy a micropost" do # Create a micropost. visit root_path fill_in :micropost_content, :with => "lorem ipsum" click_button # Destroy it. lambda { click_link "delete" }.should change(Micropost, :count).by(-1) end end end  In the final test, we use the curly brace syntax for Ruby blocks (Section 4.3.2) and the Webrat click_link method to verify that clicking on the delete link removes one micropost: lambda { click_link "delete" }.should change(Micropost, :count).by(-1)  ## 11.4 Conclusion With the addition of the Microposts resource, we are nearly finished with our sample application. All that remains is to add a social layer by letting users follow each other. We’ll learn how to model such user relationships, and see the implications for the status feed, in Chapter 12. Before proceeding, be sure to commit and merge your changes if you’re using Git for version control: $ git add .
$git commit -m "Added user microposts"$ git checkout master
$git merge user-microposts  You can also push the app up to Heroku at this point. Because the data model has changed through the addition of the microposts table, you will also need to migrate the production database: $ git push heroku
\$ heroku rake db:migrate


## 11.5 Exercises

We’ve covered enough material now that there is a combinatorial explosion of possible extensions to the application. Here are just a few of the many possibilities:

2. Add tests for the sidebar micropost counts (including proper pluralization).
3. (mainly for designers) Modify the microposts listing to use an ordered list instead of a table. (Note: this is how Twitter displays its status updates.) Then add the appropriate CSS to make the resulting feed not look like crap.
4. Add tests for micropost pagination.
5. Refactor the Home page to use separate partials for the two branches of the if-else statement.
6. Write a test to make sure delete links do not appear for microposts not created by the current user.
7. Define a display helper using the sanitize and auto_link methods, as shown in Listing 11.42, and use it to replace the h method in the micropost partial (Listing 11.17). Examine the results for a micropost whose content includes a URL (such as “I’m reading an awesome Rails book at http://www.railstutorial.org/!”).
8. Add a nested route so that /users/1/microposts shows all the microposts for user 1. (You will also have to add a Microposts controller index action and corresponding view.)
9. Very long words currently break our layout, as shown in Figure 11.17. Fix this problem using the wrap helper defined in Listing 11.43.
Listing 11.42. Adding a display helper method for micropost content.
app/helpers/microposts_helper.rb
module MicropostsHelper

def display(content)
end
end

Listing 11.43. A helper to wrap long words.
app/helpers/microposts_helper.rb
module MicropostsHelper

def wrap(content)
content.split.map{ |s| wrap_long_string(s) }.join(' ')
end

private

def wrap_long_string(text, max_width = 30)
zero_width_space = "&#8203;"
regex = /.{1,#{max_width}}/
(text.length < max_width) ? text :
text.scan(regex).join(zero_width_space)
end
end

1. Technically, we treated sessions as a resource in Chapter 9, but they are not saved to the database the way users and microposts are.
2. The content attribute will be a string, but, as noted briefly in Section 2.1.2, for longer text fields you should use the text data type.
3. For more on Factory Girl associations, including the many options available, see the Factory Girl documentation
4. Recall that created_at and updated_at are “magic” columns, so any explicit initialization values are overwritten by the magic.
5. In the sense of semantic markup, it would probably be better to use an ordered list, but in that case the vertical alignment of text and images is much more difficult than with tables. See the exercise in Section 11.5 if you insist on struggling with the semantic version.
6. In case you’re wondering, the association count method is smart, and performs the count directly in the database. In particular, it does not pull all the microposts out of the database and then call length on the resulting array, as this would become terribly inefficient as the number of microposts grew. Instead, it asks the database to count the microposts with the given user_id. By the way, in the unlikely event that finding the count is still a bottleneck in your application, you can make it even faster with a counter cache
7. For convenience, Listing 11.19 actually has all the CSS needed for this chapter.
8. i.e., the five users with custom Gravatars, and one with the default Gravatar
9. Tail your log/development.log file if you’re curious about the SQL this method generates.
10. By design, the Faker gem’s lorem ipsum text is randomized, so the contents of your sample microposts will differ.
11. The other two resources are Users in Section 8.1 and Sessions in Section 9.1
12. We noted in Section 9.14 that helper methods are available only in views by default, but we arranged for the Sessions helper methods to be available in the controllers as well by adding include SessionsHelper to the Application controller (Listing 9.11).
13. Note that ’pages/home’ and root_path are actually the same page in the present case, but this needn’t be so in general, so we use different notation to keep them conceptually distinct.
14. Learning about methods such as include? is one reason why, as noted in Section 1.1.1, I recommend reading a pure Ruby book after finishing this one.
15. See the Rails Guide on the Active Record Query Interface for more on :conditions and the like.
16. Unfortunately, returning a paginated feed doesn’t work in this case. Implement it and click on a pagination link to see why. (The screencasts will cover this issue in more depth.)
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